Quality Operations Laboratory

Microbiology Section

This is a very strong wing of the QOL building. It consists of Bacteriology and Virology/Molecularbiology Sections. It has Cell Culture,  Embryo Inoculation, Bacteriology, Serology and Molecularbiology Freeze Drying laboratories.  




A modern cell culture laboratory in QOL building was established in 2006. In this laboratory, BHK-21 cell line and Vero Cell Line are being multiplied and maintained for cultivation of FMD virus. Moreover, primary bovine thyroid cell monolayer, chicken embryo hepatocytes, chicken embryo fibroblast etc., are routinely developed for propagation of livestock and avian pathogens.




Avian embryos are good source of cells for cultivation of avian and some mammalian viruses, evaluating drug toxicity/ live attenuated virus vaccines, biological titration of viruses, etc. This lab is extensively used for isolation and identification of locally prevailing viruses.

Recently, avian influenza viruses (bird flu virus) was isolated and characterized through HA and HI test. A postgraduate student conducted a detailed study on preparation and evaluation of bird flu vaccine in Pakistan. This technology has been transferred to public and private sector.





Recently Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad, funded a research project ?Isolation and characterization of shiga toxin producing E. coli?. Under this project, a lot of improvements have been made in the laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with incubator, centrifuge machine, refrigerator, stomacher, biofermentor, pH meter, balance, computerized colony counter etc. In addition to research work, monitoring of breeder farms, broilers farms, hatcheries and stud farms through testing total coliform and total bacterial count and evaluation of disinfectants through phenol coefficient is undertaken.




This laboratory is well equipped with ELISA reader, balance, vacuum, pH meter, centrifuge, 96 welled micro-titration plates, mono-channel and multichannel pipettes. Staff in the laboratory is extensively involved in monitoring sero-conversion of the animals vaccinated or exposed to field pathogens.




The imported serotypes of the FMD virus were processed for RT-PCR based molecular characterization. Currently techniques for molecular based characterization of ?O? and ?A? have been established and the procedure for characterization of ?Asia-1? serotype of


the FMD virus is in progress. Each of the 29 local field virus isolates were given a standard code for its identification and stored at -80 C for further characterization. Out of these, three virus isolates from Herbance Pura, Lahore, Chiniot District Jhang and Daska District Sialkot were characterized as ?O? type of the FMD virus. Characterization of others is in progress.

Primers and all required reagents for molecular characterization of most of the livestock and avian pathogens are available in the laboratory.

 Name of Tests  
Name of Tests
1 Anti-FMDV Serum of Rabbit/Guinea Pig: (1:16 Neutralizing Titre)

Type (per ml)


A Type (per ml)


Aisa-1 Type (per ml)

5 One Flask BHK-21 Cell Line (Disposable small sized 25 cm2 carrel flask)

TCID-50 of each type of FMD virus (A, O, Asia-I)


LD-50 of HPS virus


EID-50 of Newcastle disease (ND), Avian Influenza (AI), Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Fowl Pox


Safety and Sterility test of inactivated Microbial Suspension Culture

10 Antiviral action of disinfectant against N.D. and A.I. Viruses
11 Antiviral action of disinfectant against FMD Viruses
12 PCR for RNA Viruses

PCR for DNA Viruses


CFT (Complement fixation test)

  1.  V N Test (Virus Naturalization Test in Birds)

  2. V N Test (Virus Naturalization Test in Chick Embryos)

  3. V N Test (Virus Naturalization Test in BHK Cell line

15 H.A. and H.I. Test for N.D, A.I.V. (H5, H7, H9), Pox Virus
16 Training of one or group of persons in any module such as vaccine production,  PCR technique, Cell culture, virus propagation in cell culture or avian embryos, evaluation of vaccines, etc

Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial, Fungal, and Viral Pathogens


Total Viable Bacterial Count


Coli Form Count


Total Viable Fungal Count


Guinea Pig (per pair)


Rabbits (per pair)